The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act includes eight schedules, the first three of which cover the majority of illegal drugs (see Table, page 161).
The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-38.8/index.html) defines several offences and penalties in relation to controlled substances which include illicit drugs and psychotropic medications. Offences include illegal possession, trafficking, possession for the purpose of trafficking, production, importing, and exporting of these substances. The Canadian Criminal Code also includes drug-related provisions. Anyone who knowingly imports, exports, manufactures, promotes or sells instruments for illicit drug use (sec. 462.2) or launders the proceeds of a crime (sec. 462.31) is guilty of an offence and subject to a penalty.
There is no specific law in Canada regarding compulsory drug rehabilitation. But there are many legal mechanisms, (court orders, probation orders, and parole orders, etc.) for encouraging or forcing offenders to obtain treatment for their drug abuse.
Controlled substances in Canada are regulated through legislation. The main laws governing legal drugs are the Food and Drugs Act, and the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
Psychotropic medications including controlled substances are governed by the Food and Drugs Act and the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. Before a medication can be sold, it must undergo clinical, pharmacological, and toxicological trials, the results of which must receive a favourable assessment. The rules for producing, importing, exporting, obtaining, and selling medications are very strict, and violators can be punished.
The prescribing and distributing of medications by health-care professionals are also strictly regulated. To write or renew prescriptions, doctors must follow very strict criteria (for example, regarding clinical assessment and ongoing diagnosis). Certain medications are included in schedules I to IV and VI of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act because of their psychoactive properties.
ESTIMATING YOUR BLOOD ALCOHOL CONCENTRATION
The effects of alcohol are long-lasting. Always take a cautious approach: if there is any possibility that alcohol has impaired your ability to drive, operate machinery, etc., do not engage in these activities, and never use a blood alcohol concentration lower than 0.08 as a justification for taking risks. The following tables are provided for information only. They must be interpreted with caution because an individualís reaction to alcohol will differ depending on his/her build and health, and the specific drinking circumstances. Drinking alcohol without eating allows the alcohol to enter the bloodstream much faster and its effects are stronger. It is therefore better to eat when drinking alcohol.
A woman who weighs 68 kg (150 pounds) spends the evening at the home of friends. At 7 p.m., she drinks one 341 mL glass of beer with a 5% alcohol content. Then she drinks three 5-ounce glasses of wine, each with a 12% alcohol content. At 10 p.m., she finishes her last drink of the evening, a 1.5-ounce glass of cognac with a 40% alcohol content. She doesnít eat anything. The liver eliminates alcohol at a rate of about 15 mg of alcohol per 100 mL of blood per hour.
What is her blood alcohol concentration at 11 p.m.?
Answer: 109 mg %.
ACUTE ALCOHOL INTOXICATION
How to recognize acute alcohol intoxication
Alcohol overdose is a relatively common phenomenon, especially when someone absorbs large amounts of alcohol in a short amount of time.
Acute alcohol intoxication can cause death in less than an hour. That is why, when someone seems to have drunk a large amount of alcohol in a fairly short time, it is important to watch for the signs of acute intoxication.
Though these signs are generally proportional to
the personís blood alcohol concentration, not all
people react to a given level of alcohol in the
same way. Reactions can be affected by many
factors, including weight, gender, tolerance to
alcohol, whether or not food has been eaten
(food can slow the absorption of alcohol into the
blood), and the context in which they are drinking.
EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND DRUGS WHILE DRIVING A MOTOR VEHICLE
Driving a motor vehicle is a relatively complex task that demands the coordination of several different actions simultaneously. These include perception (good vision and hearing), attention (being able to react quickly and properly in a variety of unforeseeable situations), concentration (being able to concentrate on a particular task for a certain period of time), memory (remembering situations which occured in the past), anticipation (being able to foresee how situations will unfold as you are driving now), good judgment (absorbing and processing information from various sources promptly, and making the right decisions at the right time), and movement co-ordination (braking and steering so as to avoid collisions and properly manoeuvre the vehicle).
Effects of alcohol on the ability to drive
Alcoholís effects on the brain are responsible for impairing a personís driving ability. These effects depend primarily on the following factors:
Effects of drugs on the ability to drive
Since the 1970s, a number of studies have been done to determine how drugs other than alcohol affect peopleís ability to drive and what risk of fatal accidents these drugs present. The main findings of these studies were as follows:
Some medications, whether prescribed by your doctor or purchased over-the-counter, can impair your ability to drive by causing problems with your vision, attentiveness, alertness and behaviour, or by disturbing your sense of balance.
If you will be taking any such medications, it is therefore essential to consult a health professional (doctor or pharmacist) about the effects that they may have on your ability to drive a motor vehicle. You should also always carefully read the information on the package and label of any medication that you will be taking, whether it is a prescription medication or an over-the-counter one.
Also keep in mind that regardless of whether a drug is a depressant,
a stimulant, or a hallucinogen, it can affect your ability to
drive a motor vehicle.
LIST OF PROHIBITED SUBSTANCES AND PROHIBITED METHODS IDENTIFIED IN THE WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
The Prohibited List in the World Anti-Doping Code is defined and regularly updated by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
EFFECTS SOUGHT BY ATHLETES WHO TAKE ANABOLIC SUBSTANCES
Athletes illegally abuse anabolic agents in the belief that taking these substances will enhance their athletic performance. Though some scientists question this belief, under certain conditions anabolic steroids can produce the following effects:
The total dosage consumed by athletes can be 2 to 200 times higher than the normal therapeutic dosage